Useful knowledge of printed circuit boards

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FS Technology Turnkey PCB Assembly

With the development of the electronics industry, the PCB industry has become the backbone of the electronics manufacturing industry. Next, FS Technology turnkey PCB assembly company will introduce some of this knowledge to you in this article.

CCL

The full name of copper clad laminate is copper clad laminate, referred to as CCL, which is the upstream core material of PCB manufacturing and has strong interdependence with PCB. The main material of printed circuit board is copper clad laminate, which consists of substrate, copper foil and adhesive. The copper clad laminate mainly plays the role of interconnection, insulation and support for the printed circuit board.

What is CCL?

The abbreviation of copper clad laminate is CCL. The turnkey PCB assembly company immerses the electronic glass fiber cloth or other reinforcing materials in the resin, covers one or both sides with copper foil, and after hot pressing, the copper clad PCB can be formed. In order to make different printed circuits, PCB manufacturers will selectively use different processes such as machining, etching, drilling, and copper plating.

As a substrate material in the manufacture of printed circuit boards, CCL mainly interconnects, insulates and supports printed circuit boards, and affects the transmission speed, energy loss and characteristic impedance of signals in the circuit. Therefore, the performance, quality, workability in manufacturing, manufacturing level, manufacturing cost, and long-term reliability and stability of printed circuit boards depend to a large extent on the CCL.

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The difference between copper clad laminate and pcb board

The abbreviation of printed circuit board is PCB, which is the carrier of electrical connection between electronic components. The PCB produced by FS Technology can provide mechanical support for the fixed assembly of various components, and realize the wiring, electrical connection and electrical insulation between electronic components.

The full name of copper clad laminate is copper clad laminate, referred to as CCL. It is worth mentioning that copper clad laminates can determine the performance of PCBs.

PCBs are not copper clad laminates. FS Technology uses copper clad laminates as materials to make single-sided or double-sided PCBs. In order to make a better circuit board, we often need to go through various processes. FS Technology can realize the following categories of PCB manufacturing, in addition to single-sided and double-sided PCB, there are 4 layers, 6 layers, 8 layers, 10 layers.

The difference between electronic components and electronic devices

Electronic components are the general term for components and devices. Electronic components: refers to finished products whose molecular composition does not change during factory production and processing. Such as resistors, capacitors, inductors. Electronic device: refers to the finished product whose molecular structure is changed during the production and processing of the factory. It is worth mentioning that FS Technology is a company with PCB component procurement, if you have this need, we are definitely the best.

Electronic components are the introduction of components

Such as resistors, capacitors, inductors. Since it does not generate electrons, it has no control and transformation effect on voltage and current, so it is also called passive device. Electronic device: refers to the finished product whose molecular structure is changed during the production and processing of the factory. Such as transistors, tubes, integrated circuits. Because it can generate electrons and control and transform voltage and current (amplification, switching, rectification, detection, oscillation and modulation, etc.), it is also called an active device. According to the classification standard, electronic devices can be divided into 12 categories, which can be divided into two categories: vacuum electronic devices and semiconductor devices. The development history of electronic components is actually a condensed history of electronic development history. Electronic technology is an emerging technology developed in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. In the 20th century, it developed the most rapidly and was widely used. It has become an important symbol of the development of modern science and technology.

Component classification introduction

Ingredients: The product is factory processed without changing the molecular composition. The product can be called a component and does not require energy. It includes: resistance, capacitance, inductance. (also known as passive components) (1) circuit devices: diodes, resistors, etc. (2) connecting devices: connectors, sockets, connecting cables, printed circuit boards (PCB)

The device is divided into:

1. Active device, its main features are: (1) Self-consumption of power (2) It also requires an external power supply.

2. Discrete devices, divided into (1) bipolar transistors (2) field effect transistors (3) thyristors (4) semiconductor resistors and capacitors

resistance

The resistance is represented by “R” plus a to indicate the number in the circuit, such as: R1 means the resistance number is 1. The main functions of resistors in the circuit are: shunt, current limit, voltage divider, bias, etc.

capacitance

“C” followed by a number indicates a capacitor (eg C13 for capacitor number 13). FS Technology uses two metal films to form capacitors, which are close together but separated by insulating material. The main features of capacitors are blocking direct current and interrupting alternating current with alternating current. The size of a capacitor’s capacity is the amount of energy that can be stored. We refer to blocking AC signals as capacitive reactance. The frequency of the signal is related to the capacitance.

crystal diode

Crystal diodes are often represented by “D” plus a number in the circuit, such as: D5 indicates that the diode number is 5. Function: The main function of the diode is unidirectional conduction, that is, under the action of forward voltage, the on-resistance is very small; under the action of reverse voltage, the on-resistance is extremely large or infinite.

Inductors

Inductors are not used much in electronics production, but they are used in circuits. of equal importance. We think that inductors, like capacitors, are also energy storage elements that convert electrical energy into magnetic field energy and store energy in the magnetic field. The inductance is represented by the symbol L, and its basic unit is Henry (H), and the commonly used unit is millihenry (mH). Often combined with capacitors to form LC filters, LC oscillators, etc. In addition, people also use the characteristics of inductance to make choke coils, transformers, relays, etc.

Combinational Circuit

The abbreviation for Integrated Circuit is IC. The one-stop PCB manufacturer uses a special process to integrate transistors, resistors, capacitors and other components together, making it a functional component. An analog integrated circuit is an integrated circuit used to process analog signals. The principle is to compose and integrate capacitors, resistors, transistors and other components.
Analog integrated circuits include the following concentrations: integrated operational amplifiers, comparators, logarithmic and exponential amplifiers, analog multipliers, phase-locked loops, and power management chips.
The main components of the analog integrated circuit are: amplifier, filter, feedback circuit, reference source circuit and switched capacitor circuit.
Experienced designers obtain analog integrated circuits through manual circuit debugging and simulation technology, FS Technology Wield obtains corresponding digital integrated circuits, and uses EDA software to automatically generate hardware description language.

Digital Integrated Circuit

A digital integrated circuit means that a pcb manufacturer uses integrated components and wiring on a semiconductor chip to create a circuit or system that is identical to digital logic. The scale of digital integrated circuits: small-scale integrated circuits, medium-scale integrated circuits, large-scale integrated circuits, and very large-scale integrated circuits. The number of gates or components is the only factor that differentiates a digital integrated circuit. Small integrated circuits not only have fewer than 10 gates, but also have less than 100 components. Medium-sized integrated circuits not only have 10-100 gate circuits, but also have 100-1000 components. Large-scale integrated circuits not only contain more than 100A gate circuits, but also the number of components is between 10-10. Through our introduction to pcb components, you should have a certain understanding of FS technology, and then go to our website PCB Assembly to place an order.

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Introduction of motor

Classification of electric motors:
Divide method: the type, structure and working principle of the working power supply, use and running speed
Application: drive motor and control motor
Brushless DC motors have good mechanical characteristics and linearity of adjustment characteristics, wide speed range, long life, easy maintenance, low noise, and no brushes. Next, this article will briefly introduce the types of motors and the characteristics of different types of motors.

What are the types of motors

Divided by structure and working principle: brushless DC motor and brushed DC motor, permanent magnet DC motor and electromagnetic DC motor.
Materials: Rare earth, ferrite and Alnico permanent magnet DC motors.
Excitation mode: series excitation, shunt excitation, separate excitation and compound excitation DC motor.
AC motors: single-phase motors and three-phase motors
According to the purpose: there are drive motors and control motors.
Running speed: high-speed motor, low-speed motor, constant-speed motor and speed-regulated motor.
Low-speed motors: geared motors, electromagnetic geared motors, torque motors and claw-pole synchronous motors.

Characteristics of different types of PCB motors

Brushless DC Motor

With the advancement of the times, brushless DC motors have replaced brushed DC motors. The advantage of a brushless DC motor is that the drive current is not affected and the AC is not hindered. Of course, human needs are constantly changing, and there are more and more types of brushless DC motors. At present, there are mainly brushless speed motors and brushless torque motors. DC brushless motors use a trapezoidal wave drive current, while AC servo motors use a sine wave drive current.

In order to reduce the moment of inertia, brushless DC motors usually adopt a “slender” structure.  Due to the processing of permanent magnet materials, the general capacity of brushless DC motors is below 100kW.

In addition to the advantages of wide speed range, long life, convenient maintenance and low noise, the motor also has good mechanical characteristics and linearity of adjustment characteristics.

stepper motor

The so-called stepper motor is an actuator that converts electrical pulses into angular displacement. More generally: When the stepper driver receives a pulse signal, it drives the stepper motor to rotate a fixed angle in the set direction. We can control the angular displacement of the motor by controlling the number of pulses, so as to achieve the purpose of precise positioning. At the same time, the speed and acceleration of the motor rotation can be controlled by controlling the pulse frequency, so as to achieve the purpose of speed regulation. At present, the commonly used stepping motors include reactive stepping motor (VR), permanent magnet stepping motor (PM), hybrid stepping motor (HB) and single-phase stepping motor.

The main difference between stepper motors and ordinary motors is the form of pulse drive.  However, the stepper motor is not as good as the traditional closed-loop control DC servo motor in terms of control accuracy, speed variation range, and low-speed performance. FS Technology believes that it can only be used in occasions where the accuracy requirements are not particularly high. Humans have seen the advantages of stepper motors (simple structure, high reliability, and low cost) and have widely used them in various fields of production practice.In the field of CNC machine tool manufacturing, stepper motors play a greater role. It can directly convert digital pulse signal into angular displacement. FS Technology believes that stepper motors are the most ideal CNC machine tool actuators.

FS Technology uses stepper motors not only in CNC machine tools, but also in other machinery, such as automatic feeders and printers.

In addition, stepper motors also have many disadvantages. The stepper motor has the following limitations: when the speed is too high, the stepper motor not only fails to start, but also produces a sharp whistling sound.The precision of subdivision drivers of different manufacturers may vary greatly. The more subdivisions, the more difficult to control the precision. Moreover, when the stepper motor rotates at low speed, it will generate large vibration and noise.

servo motor

It can convert the input voltage signal into the mechanical output on the motor shaft, and drag the controlled element, so as to achieve the purpose of control.

The earliest servo motors were general-purpose DC motors. From a structural point of view, the current DC servo motor is a low-power DC motor, and its excitation mostly adopts armature control and magnetic field control, but usually adopts armature control.

DC motors can satisfy the control system well in terms of mechanical characteristics. However, due to the existence of the commutator, the DC motor has many disadvantages. For example, the connection between the commutators is prone to spark with the brushes and interfere with the drive. It cannot be used in flammable gas applications. There is friction between the brushes and the commutator, creating a large dead zone. The structure is complex and maintenance is difficult.

The AC servo motor is essentially a two-phase asynchronous motor, and the control methods mainly include amplitude control, phase control and amplitude-phase control.

The rotational speed can change continuously with the change of the applied voltage signal. The response of the motor should be fast, the volume should be small, and the control power should be small.

torque motor

The so-called torque motor is a flat multi-pole permanent magnet DC motor. The armature has more slots and number of commutator segments and series conductors to reduce torque ripple and speed ripple. There are two types of torque motors: DC torque motors and AC torque motors.

Among them, the self-inductance reactance of the DC torque motor is very small, so the response is very good. The output torque is proportional to the input current, independent of the speed and position of the rotor.  Therefore it can generate a higher torque-to-inertia ratio on the loaded shaft, thereby eliminating system errors by using reduction gears. If you want to know more about motor knowledge, our FS Technology PCBA blog will be the best choice.

FS Technology divides AC torque motors into two types: synchronous and asynchronous. We use the squirrel-cage asynchronous torque motor the most, which has the characteristics of low speed and large torque. Generally speaking, the textile industry uses AC torque motors most frequently. Its working principle and structure are the same as those of single-phase asynchronous motors, but due to the large resistance of the squirrel-cage rotor, its mechanical properties are softer.